Popularly known as Beesontown, "The Town of Union" was founded by Henry Beeson on July 4, 1776, only coincidentally the same date as the United States Declaration of Independence. The National Road, also known as the Cumberland Road, was routed through Uniontown in the early 19th century and the town grew along with the road. Within 10 miles of Uniontown is Fort Necessity, built by George Washington during the French and Indian War.
Uniontown's role in the Underground Railroad is commemorated by a marker on the corner of East Main Street and Baker Alley.
Uniontown was the site of violent clashes between striking coal miners and guards at the local coke works during the Bituminous Coal Miner Strike of 1894. 15 guards armed with carbines and machine guns held off an attack by 1500 strikers, killing 5 and wounding 8.
The Columbia Rolling Mill, an iron and steel works, was located in Uniontown from 1887 to 1895. The mill was the town's unquestioned top industry at that time. During the Coal Boom of the early part of the 20th century, Uniontown was home to at least 13 millionaires, the most (per capita) of any city in the United States. As with most of Western Pennsylvania, Uniontown's economy waned during the region's de-industrialization of the late 20th century.